Smalcald Articles Study: The First and Chief Article

Ask yourself: If you were writing your final testimony about the Christian faith, what would you identify as the first and chief article? The answer to the question reveals what lies at the heart of anyone’s understanding of God and Christianity. Luther’s answer is...

The Table of Duties in the Small Catechism

When Martin Luther prepared the text of the Small Catechism, he included a list of duties that people in various callings and stations in life have, as both a command and blessing from God.

Formula of Concord Study: Article XI

The last single-issue article of the Formula of Concord, Article XI is unique in that it was largely preemptive. While acknowledging that no major struggle had yet erupted over this article of faith...

Formula of Concord Study: Article IX

Arguably the most opaque passage of the Creed is that Christ descended into hell. The passage is based on Scripture, but these scriptural passages (e.g., 1 Peter 3) lend themselves to multiple interpretations...

Formula of Concord Study: Article VIII

Both historically- and theologically-speaking, seeing these two articles together is proper and useful. They almost serve as “A and B” of the same conversation, two sides of the same coin.

Formula of Concord Study: Article VII

The seventh article in the Formula of Concord deals chiefly with the controversy stirred up within the churches of the Lutheran confession by the Sacramentarians.

Formula of Concord Study: Article VI

Even during Luther’s lifetime, a strong “antinomian” (against the Law) spirit had risen up among certain theologians who claimed that, once the Gospel regenerates the heart, the Law is no longer needed.

Formula of Concord Study: Article V

This article considers whether the gospel is a preaching of repentance that rebukes sin and unbelief. The authors of the Formula conclude that the answer depends on what you mean by “gospel.”

Formula of Concord Study: Article IV

As we’ll study more below, the Confessors of the Formula of Concord took great care to properly define “good work” as that which flows, not unto faith and salvation, but from faith and salvation.

Formula of Concord Study: Article III

In article III, we will see how the Lutheran Confessions address and faithfully refute old and new efforts to refashion the doctrine of justification as some change within us.

The Apology of the Augsburg Confession

The presentation of the Augsburg Confession was a foundational moment in the Lutheran Church. On June 25, 1530, the confession of the Lutheran estates of the Holy Roman Empire was read before Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg.

Formula of Concord Study: Articles I and II

The Confessions are not just a history book of what was once at stake for true Lutheran confession, but they are also a description of what is still at stake for true Lutheran confession.

The Presentation of the Augsburg Confession

The Augsburg Confession is comprised twenty-eight articles. Of these articles, twenty-one represent a positive presentation of the Christian faith as taught in the Lutheran Churches while the last seven article cover suggested reforms of certain practices of the medieval Church.

Formula of Concord Study: Introduction

The authors of the Formula developed a strategy to bring unity and peace among Lutherans without compromising the truth. This goal led them to adopt an irenic but firm tone in the Formula.